Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). Most cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecological cancer to prevent with regular screening tests and vaccination. It is also very curable when found and treated early.
Learn more about cervical cancer at the National Cancer Institute.
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus. It happens when the body's cervical cells divide very fast and grow out of control. These extra cells form a tumor.
Each year, about 12,000 women in the United States get cervical cancer. Cervical cancer happens most often in women 30 years or older, but all women are at risk.
Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by a high-risk type of HPV. HPV is a virus that is passed from person to person through genital contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If the HPV infection does not go away on its own, it may cause cervical cancer over time.
Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include:
You may not notice any signs or symptoms of cervical cancer. Signs of advanced cervical cancer may include bleeding or discharge from the vagina. These symptoms may not be caused by cervical cancer, but the only way to be sure is to see your doctor.
Women should start getting screened at age 21. You can get a Pap test to look for changes in cervical cells that could become cancerous if not treated. If the Pap test finds major changes in the cells of the cervix, your doctor may suggest more tests to look for cancer. Women between the ages of 30 and 65 can also get an HPV test with your Pap test to see if you have HPV.
The Pap test and the HPV test look for different things.
A Pap test checks the cervix for abnormal cell changes that, if not found and treated, can lead to cervical cancer. Your doctor takes cells from your cervix to examine under a microscope. How often you need a Pap test depends on your age and health history. Talk with your doctor about what is best for you.
Learn more about Pap tests on our Pap test page.
An HPV test looks for HPV on a woman's cervix. Certain types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer. Your doctor will swab the cervix for cells. An HPV test is not the same as the HPV vaccine.
According to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), women ages 30 to 65 can combine the HPV test with a Pap test every 5 years. The USPSTF does not recommend the HPV test for women under age 30.
Learn more about HPV and the HPV test on our HPV page.
How often you need to be screened depends on your age and health history. Talk with your doctor about what is best for you. Most women can follow these guidelines:
If you had a hysterectomy, you should follow these guidelines:
You can lower your risk of getting cervical cancer with the following steps. The steps work best when used together. No single step can protect you from cervical cancer. The best ways to prevent cervical cancer include:
HPV vaccines are approved for girls and young women from 9 through 26. Experts recommend that all girls get an HPV vaccine before any sexual activity, by the time they are 11 or 12. The Gardasil 9 HPV vaccine gives the most protection against cervical cancer for girls and women. Some girls younger than 15 may be able to get just two doses of the HPV vaccine, but others may need three doses of the HPV vaccine. The HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. Talk to your doctor to find out how many doses are best for you.
Yes. You can still benefit from the HPV vaccine if you have already had sexual contact before getting all three doses. This only applies if you have not been infected with the HPV types included in the vaccine.
For more information about cervical cancer, call the OWH Helpline at 800-994-9662 or contact the following organizations:
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Page last updated: May 03, 2017.
Content last reviewed: April 21, 2014.