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National Breastfeeding Campaign

About the campaign

Project leader: Suzanne Haynes, Ph.D.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health (OWH) was funded to carry out the recommendations of the HHS Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding (2000) into a National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign to promote breastfeeding among first-time parents (mothers and fathers) who would not normally breastfeed their baby. The overall goal of the campaign was to increase the proportion of mothers who breastfeed their babies in the early postpartum period to 75% and those within six months postpartum to 50% by the year 2010 (Healthy People 2010). The campaign aimed to empower women to commit to breastfeeding and to highlight new research that shows that babies who are exclusively breastfed for six months are less likely to develop ear infections, diarrhea, respiratory illnesses, and may be less likely to develop childhood obesity. Besides trying to raise initiation rates, the campaign stressed the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for six months.

Launched: June 2004
Ended: April 2006

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Campaign components

Media outreach campaign

As a part of the National Breastfeeding Campaign, a media campaign was launched in June 2004. The Advertising Council selected the National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign for official sponsorship. OWH worked in close coordination with the Advertising Council to implement the campaign. Although the educational awareness campaign has ended, continued promotion efforts are underway with a communications contractor, Hager Sharp. This includes a World Breastfeeding week media event, print media coverage and radio interviews (archive).

The media campaign was based on the goals, objectives and recommendations of the HHS Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding (2000) and primarily targeted first time parents who would not normally breastfeed.

The campaign was being marketed in partnership with strategically selected organizations and was employing state-of-the-art communication techniques through a variety of channels and strategies through public service announcements for television, radio, newspapers, magazines, mass transit shelters, billboards and the Internet.

Community-based demonstration projects

Sixteen community-based demonstration projects (CDPs) throughout the United States worked in coordination with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health and the Advertising Council to implement the National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign on a local level. The CDPs attempted to build self-efficacy by working to educate women about the benefits of breastfeeding, empower them to choose to breastfeed, and create awareness that breastfeeding is normal, desirable, and achievable.

The CDPs:

  • Ensured that breastfeeding mothers have access to comprehensive, up-to-date and culturally tailored lactation services provided by trained physicians, nurses, lactation consultants and nutritionists/dietitians; Developed breastfeeding education for women, their partners and other significant family members during the prenatal and postnatal periods; Established family and community programs that enable breastfeeding continuation when women return to work in all possible settings; Developed social support and information resources for breastfeeding women such as hotlines, peer counseling, and mother-to-mother support groups;
  • Encouraged fathers and other family members to be actively involved throughout the breastfeeding experience.

Contact list

Alabama | California | Colorado | Illinois | Louisiana | Maryland | Massachusetts | Missouri | New Jersey | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Puerto Rico | Rhode Island | Tennessee | Washington, DC

Alabama

Marguerite Gorman, R.D., I.B.C.L.C.
Patty Landry, R.N., I.B.C.L.C.
Children's Health System
1600 7th Ave., South
Birmingham, Alabama 35242
Phone: 205-939-6268
Fax: 205-939-6063
Email: marguerite.Gorman@chsys.org
Email: patricia.landry@chsys.org

California

Karen Peters, M.B.A., R.D., I.B.C.L.C.
Breastfeeding Task Force of Greater Los Angeles
1821A Speyer Lane
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
Phone: 310-374-1012
Fax: 213-596-5776
Email: kpeters@breastfeedla.org
www.breastfeedla.org

Joanna Laffey
UCSF Women's Health Resource Center
2356 Sutter Street
First Floor
San Francisco, CA 94143-1750
Phone: 415-885-3796
Fax: 415-353-9580
Email: Joanna.Laffey@ucsfmedctr.org

Colorado

Mary Lou Howard, R.N.
Parkview Medical Center
400 W. 16th Street
Pueblo, CO 81003
Phone:719-584-4000
Fax: 719-595-7157
Email: mlhoward@ris.net

Illinois

Sue Aberman, C.N.P., M.S. I.B.C.L.C.
UIC Breastfeeding/Lactation Service
University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago
1740 West Taylor Street, Room 4120 West
Chicago, Il 60612
Phone: 312-413-0233
Fax: 312-413-8515
Email: saberman@uic.edu

Louisiana

Jeanette Magnus, M.D., Ph.D.
Meshawn Tarver
Tulane Xavier National Center of Excellence in Women's Health
1440 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112
Phone: 877-587-2181
Fax: 504-988-4657
Email: jmagnus@tulane.edu
Email: mtarver@tulane.edu

Maryland

Kathi Barber, C.L.E.C.
Executive Director
African American Breastfeeding Alliance
940 Madison Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21213
Phone: 410-225-2006
Fax: 410-225-2017
Email: aaba@att.net

Massachusetts

Barbara L. Philipp, M.D., I.B.C.L.C.
Boston University School of Medicine
Division of General Pediatrics
Maternity Building, 4th Floor
91 East Concord Street
Boston, MA 02118
Phone: 617-414-4233
Fax: 617-414-6191
Email: bobbi.philipp@bmc.org

Anne Merewood, I.B.C.L.C.
Director of Lactation Services
The Breastfeeding Center
Boston Medical Center
Menino Pavillion
850 Harrison Ave., ACC5/Pediatrics
Boston, MA 02118
Phone: 617-414-6455
Fax: 617-414-2662
Email: anne.merewood@bmc.org

Missouri

Susan S. McLoughlin, M.S.N., R.N., C.P.N.P.
Executive Director
Maternal and Child Health Coalition of Greater Kansas City
6400 Prospect, Suite 216
Kansas City, MO 64132
Phone: 816-283-6242
Fax: 816-283-0307
Email: smcloughlin@mchc.net
Website: http://www.mchc.net

Charlene Burnett, B.S.N., I.B.C.L.C.
Project Coordinator
Email: Charlene.burnett@tmcmed.org

New Jersey

Chris Mulford, R.N., I.B.C.L.C.
Coordinator, Southern NJ Perinatal Cooperative
WIC Breastfeeding Initiative
Women's & Children's Services
435 Hurffville-Cross Keys Road
Turnersville, NJ 08012
Phone: (856) 582-3095
Fax: (856) 582-3090
Email: c.mulford@kennedyhealth.org

Lori Feldman-Winter, M.D., I.B.C.L.C., F.A.A..P, F.A.B.M.
Chief, Division of Adolescent Medicine
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Children's Regional Hospital at Cooper
E & R Building, 3rd Floor
101 Haddon Avenue
Camden, NJ 08103
Phone: 856-757-7729
Fax: 856-968-9598
Pager: 856-968-7243 #3557
Email: winterlb@umdnj.edu

Oregon

Amelia Psmythe, Project Director
Dixie Whetsell, M.S., I.B.C.L.C.
Nursing Mothers Council of Oregon
16409 SW Division, Suite 216 — 116
Portland, OR 97236
Helpline in Portland, OR 503-282-3338
Helpline in Vancouver, WA 360 750 0656
Private for Amelia 503-287-1084
Private for Dixie 503-236-9434
Fax: 503-280-5123
Email: Amelia@nursingmotherscounsel.org

Pennsylvania

JoAnne Fisher, Executive Director
Bette Begleiter, Deputy Executive Director
Letty Thall
Maternity Care Coalition
2000 Hamilton Street
Suite 205
Philadelphia, PA 19130
Phone: 215-972-0700
Fax: 215-972-8266
Email: lthall@momobile.org
Email: bbegleiter@momobile.org
Email: Joanne@momobile.org

Puerto Rico

Yvette Piovanetti, M.D., F.A.A.P., F.A.B.M.
Carmen Cabrer, I.B.C.L.C.
PO Box 16554
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00908-6554
Phone: 787-723-8347
787-721-2160 x 3454
Fax: 787-723-2846
Email: ypiovane@caribe.net
Email: prlacta@hotmail.com (Carmen)

Rhode Island

Erin Dugan, M.P.H.
Breastfeeding Coordinator
RI Department of Health
3 Capitol Hill, Room 302
Providence, RI 02908
Phone: 401-222-1380
Fax: 401-222-1442
Email: ErinD@doh.ri.state.us

Becky Bessette, M.S., R.D.
Rhode Island Department of Health/WIC Chief
3 Capitol Hill, Room 302
Providence, RI 02908
Phone: 401-222-4604
Fax: 401-222-1442
Email: beckyb@doh.state.ri.us

Tennessee

Marcie Singleton, M.S., R.D., L.D.N., I.B.C.L.C.
Lee Murphy, M.S., R.D., L.D.N.
East Tennessee Breastfeeding Coalition
140 Dameron Avenue
Knoxville, TN 37917
Phone: 865-215-5052
Fax: 865-215-5066
Email: Marcella.singleton@knoxcounty.org
Email: Lee.Murphy@knoxcounty.org

Washington, DC

Richetta Webb
Cheryl Harris
2100 Martin Luther King Blvd, Suite 409
Washington, DC 20020
Phone: 202-645-5663
Fax: 202-645-0516
Email: cheryli.harris@dc.gov
Email: Richetta.webb@dc.gov

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Campaign materials

Radio interviews with former Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona (archive)

Ad Council materials

Note: The Ad Council contract with U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ended on Sept 30, 2005. The TV ads expired on 12/28/2005. The radio ads expired 4/20/2006. Please contact Ann Abercrombie for more information.

Print ads

These items are only available to download, printed copies are no longer being produced

Please contact Ann Abercrombie for requests for the following materials:

  • Larger posters - 46" x 67" - Bus shelter displays that also go well on hospital or clinic hallways
  • Backdrops for indoor conferences - 5' x 11' - Small billboards for use as table curtains or background displays
  • Backdrops for outdoor conferences - 10'5" x 22'8" - Large billboards

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Television

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Radio

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Presentation on breastfeeding campaign with campaign research findings

Presentation on Breastfeeding Campaign with Campaign Research Findings (PowerPoint, 286 KB)

Web version of slides: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16

National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign Results

Babies Were Born To Be Breastfed!

Suzanne G. Haynes, Ph.D.
Senior Science Advisor
Office on Women's Health (OWH)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign

Table of Contents

  • Campaign Overview
  • Campaign Background
  • Campaign Results

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Campaign Overview

  • OWH committed funding in 2002 to a National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign and worked with Ad Council to implement
  • Overall goal: increase the proportion of mothers who breastfeed their babies
    • Early postpartum period from 69% to 75%
    • From 33% to 50% still breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum by the year 2010 (HP 2010)
  • Focus on exclusive breastfeeding at initiation and for 6 months

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Campaign Background

Pre-Campaign Research Findings

  • There was no clearly understood duration goal for breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding Moms shared a sense of pride and empowerment for their achievement
  • Everyday women who have successfully breastfed could be strong role models
  • Breastfeeding was seen as the "ideal," not the standard. There was no perceived real disadvantage if you didn't breastfeed

Campaign Goals

  • Recommendation that the constant message of breastfeeding "exclusively for 6 months" be used in all communications
  • Give women the sense that they have what it takes to breastfeed
  • Breastfeeding benefits need to be recast to have greater perceived consequence
  • Breastfeeding must be established as today's popular/ standard practice

Notes:

Pain, latching problems, etc. are practical barriers for many.

  • Best addressed by information/education from health organizations rather than advertising

Other major barrier that limits duration is "returning to work".

  • Practical complexity (e.g., lack of nursing rooms) best addressed via dialogue with business community

Therefore, "returning to work", for many, becomes a practical time/convenient excuse to wean.

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Campaign Results

Breastfeeding Post-Wave Tracking Report — Ad Council

METHODOLOGY

What – Survey tracking report for the Breastfeeding public service advertising (PSA) campaign

When

  • Continuous tracking of Awareness (n=1498)
    • October 12, 2003 - May 15, 2004
  • Pre-wave Survey- Attitudes/Behavior & Ad Recall (N-465)
    • April 18, 2004 - May 15, 2004
  • Post-wave Survey-Attitudes/Behavior & Recall (N=460)
    • April 8-19, 2005

Who – National sample, men and women, aged 18+ with oversampling of African Americans, Hispanics, and persons with children under 18

How – RDD Computer assisted telephone survey

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Awareness of Breastfeeding

  • 38% of adults say they have recently heard, seen, or read something about breastfeeding. This increased from 28% in 2004.
  • Most people had recently seen, heard, or read about breastfeeding on TV or in a magazine.
  • Total awareness: 38%
  • Base: Asked cause (460)

Percent of Sources of Awareness
Base: Aware of cause (176)

Percent of Sources of Awareness
Base: Aware of cause (176)
Sources of AwarenessPercentage
TV program24%
TV commercial24%
TV unspecified23%
Magazine article20%
Magazine ad8%
Magazine unspecified16%
From your doctor or health care professional3%
Internet or Web14%
Newspaper article16%
Newspaper ad9%
Newspaper unspecified10%
Radio program6%
Radio commercial3%
Radio unspecified5%
Billboards or outdoor posters7%
Some other place8%

Q: Please think about all the different places you have seen, heard or read about breastfeeding recently, including all of the different kinds of advertising, publicity, and other activities that talk about it. Have you seen, heard or read anything about breastfeeding anywhere recently?

Q: Was that...?

Notes:

  • TV unspecified 36 23
  • Newspaper unspec. 28 10
  • Magazine unspec. 35 16
  • Radio unspecified 12 5

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Best Way to Feed a Baby

  • Significantly more people felt that breastfeeding was the best way to feed a baby in 2005 (64%) than the previous two years (54% in 2004 and 39% in 2003).

Best way to feed a baby - bar graph

Best way to feed a baby - bar graph- tabular form of data is available in the data table that follows

Best way to feed a baby - data table

Best way to feed a baby - data table
 Pre-wave 1 - 10/03Pre-wave 2 - 04/04Post-wave - 04/05
Breastfeeding only39%54%64%
Breastfeeding and formula feeding are equally good ways to feed a baby12%24%15%
A mix of both breastfeeding and formula feeding39%14%11%
Formula only4%3%3%

Q: Which one of the following statements is closest to your opinion? The best way to feed a baby is...

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Recommended Number of Months to Exclusively Breastfeed

Recommended number of months to exclusively breastfeed - bar graph

Recommended number of months to exclusively breastfeed - bar graph - tabular form of data is available in the data table that follows

Recommended number of months to exclusively breastfeed - data table

Recommended number of months to exclusively breastfeed - bar graph
 All pre-waveWomen pre-waveAll post-waveWomen post-wave
12221
23343
311131312
47644
53534
624283740
72211
85633
95845
101123
110010
1215161516

Q: What do you think is the recommended number of months to exclusively breastfeed a baby meaning the baby is only fed breastmilk?

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Infant Formula is as Good as Breast Milk

Infant formula is as good as breast milk - data table
Base: Total (465) (460)

Infant formula is as good as breast milk - data table
 Pre-wave - 04/04Post-wave - 04/05
Top 2 boxes (strongly/somewhat agree)30%24%
Strongly agree9%5%
Somewhat agree21%18%
Neither agree nor disagree4%7%
Bottom 2 boxes (strongly/somewhat disagree)58%62%
Somewhat disagree33%24%
Strongly disagree25%38%

Q: How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Do you strongly agree, somewhat agree, neither agree nor disagree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree...?

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Overview of Specific Health Benefits

  • There was a small increase in the percentage of respondents who felt that babies who were breastfed would get fewer ear infections (48% to 54%) and would be less likely to get diarrhea (39% to 44%).
  • Responses were consistent with pre-wave levels on the risks of respiratory illness and obesity.

Strongly/Somewhat agree that If a baby is breastfed, s/he will be less likely to...

Overview of specific health benefits - bar graph

Overview of specific health benefits opinion poll - tabular form of data is available in the data table that follows

Overview of specific health benefits - data table

Overview of specific health benefits - data table
 20042005
Get ear infections48%54%
Get a respiratory illness50%52%
Become obese35%36%
Get diarrhea39%44%

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Breastfeeding Habits Among Women with Children

  • 78% of women surveyed in 2004 and 79% of women in 2005 had children.
  • Of those women, 63% in 2004 and 73% in 2005 had ever breastfed one of their children, a significant increase.

Breastfeeding habits among women with children - pie chart

Breastfeeding habits among women with children - tabular form of data is available in the data table that follows

Breastfeeding habits among women with children - data table

Breastfeeding habits among women with children - data table
 20042005
I have children (of any age)78%
Base: Females (224)
79%
Base: Females (235)
I have breastfed a child68%
Base: Females (175)
73%
Base: Females (184)

Q: Do you have children (of any age)?

Q: Have you ever breastfed a child?

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Comfort Level in the Following Situations Among Males

Comfort level in the following situations among males - bar graph

Comfort level in the following situations among males - tabular form of data is available in the data table that follows

Comfort level in the following situations among males - data table

Comfort level in the following situations among males - data table
 Seeing a woman breastfeed her baby in a park, store, or mallIf you had a child, having your own baby breastfed in public
 2004200520042005
Very comfortable41523445
Somewhat comfortable18171918
Neither comfortable or uncomfortable18151213
Somewhat uncomfortable135178
Very uncomfortable9111616

Q: Using 1 to mean "Very Comfortable" and 5 to mean "Very Uncomfortable", how comfortable would you be in the following situations?

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Comfort Level in the Following Situations Among Females

Comfort level in the following situations among females - bar graph

Comfort level in the following situations among females - tabular form of data is available in the data table that follows

Comfort level in the following situations among females - data table

Comfort level in the following situations among females - data table
 Seeing a woman breastfeed her baby in a park, store, or mallBreastfeeding your baby in a park, store, or mall
 2004200520042005
Very comfortable41382322
Somewhat comfortable15201620
Neither comfortable or uncomfortable18191310
Somewhat uncomfortable7141419
Very uncomfortable18103329

Q: Using 1 to mean "Very Comfortable" and 5 to mean "Very Uncomfortable", how comfortable would you be in the following situations?

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Ad Recall: Differences Between Those Who Had and Had Not Seen the PSAs

  • Respondents who had seen at least one of the PSAs were significantly more likely than those who had not to strongly/somewhat agree that breastfeeding reduces a child's chances of:
    • Ear infections (67% vs. 52% )*
    • Obesity (48% vs. 35%) *
    • Respiratory illness (65% vs. 49%) *
    • And they were more likely to agree strongly that breastfeeding reduces a baby's chance of getting diarrhea (35% vs. 22%) *
  • Ad aware respondents were significantly more likely to strongly/somewhat disagree that formula is as good as breast milk (75% vs. 59%) *
  • Though it was not the objective of the PSAs, women who had seen the ads were also more likely to be comfortable breastfeeding in public (59% very/somewhat comfortable, vs. 39% of those who did not see the ads) *; or seeing other women breastfeed their in public (73% vs. 55%) *.

* : significantly greater at the 95% level.

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Monthly Website and Warmline Usage

Website: /breastfeeding

Warmline: 800-994-9662

Monthly website and warmline usage - data table

Monthly website and warmline usage - data table
 WebsiteWarmline
Pre-wave May, 200428,886141
Post-wave May, 200540,144233

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Conclusions

  • Respondents generally understand the importance of and recommendations about breastfeeding, and awareness and attitudes are improving over time.
    • Awareness of messages about breastfeeding rose from 28% to 38%
    • Those who either correctly identified 6 months as the recommended length to exclusively breastfeed a baby or said the recommended duration was longer than 6 months rose from 52% to 63%
    • The number agreeing that babies should be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months increased from pre-wave (53%) to post-wave (62%)
    • Significantly more women surveyed had breastfed a child in the 04/05 study (73%) than in the 04/04 study (63%)

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Science behind the campaign: Campaign references

References for diarrhea

  1. Scariati P, Grummer-Strawn L, Beck Fein S. A longitudinal analysis of infant morbidity and the extent of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics. 1997;99(6):e5-e9
  2. Raisler J, Alexander C, O'Campo P. Breast-feeding and infant illness: a dose-response relationship? Am J Public Health. 1999;89(1):25-30
  3. Beaudry M, Dufour R, Marcoux S. Relation between infant feeding and infections during the first 6 months of life. J Pediatr. 1995;126:191-197
  4. Howie PW, Forsyth JS, Ogston SA, Clark A, du V Florey C. Protective effect of breast feeding against infection. BMJ. 1990; 300:11-16

References for otitis media

  1. Owen MJ, Baldwin CD, Swank PR, Pannu AK, Johnson DL, Howie VM. Relation of infant feeding practices, cigarette smoke exposure, and group child care to the onset and duration of otitis media with effusion in the first two years of life. J Pediatr. 1993;123:702-11
  2. Scariati P, Grummer-Strawn L, Beck Fein S. A longitudinal analysis of infant morbidity and the extent of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics. 1997;99(6):e5-e9
  3. Raisler J, Alexander C, O'Campo P. Breast-feeding and infant illness: a dose-response relationship? Am J Public Health. 1999;89(1):25-30
  4. Beaudry M, Dufour R, Marcoux S. Relation between infant feeding and infections during the first 6 months of life. J Pediatr. 1995;126:191-197.
  5. Duffy LC, Faden H, Wasielewski R, Wolf J, Krystofik D, Tonawanda/Williamsville Pediatrics. Exclusive breastfeeding protects against bacterial colonization and day care exposure to otitis media. Pediatrics. 1997;100(4):e7
  6. Duncan B, Ey J, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media. Pediatrics. 1993;91(5):867-872

References for hospitalization for respiratory illness

  1. Beaudry M, Dufour R, Marcoux S. Relation between infant feeding and infections during the first six months of life. J Pediatr. 1995;126:191-197
  2. Howie PW, Forsyth JS, Ogston SA, Clark A, du V Florey C. Protective effect of breast feeding against infection. BMJ. 1990; 300:11-16
  3. Nafstad P, Jaakkola JJ, Hagen JA, Botten G, Kongrud J. Breastfeeding, Maternal Smoking, and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Eur Respir J. 1996;9:2623-2629
  4. Oddy WH, Holt PG, Sly PD, Read AW, Landau LI, Stanley FJ, Kendall GE, Burton PR. Association Between Breast Feeding and Asthma in 6-Year-Old Children: Findings of a Prospective Birth Cohort Study. BMJ. 1999;319:815-819
  5. Oddy WH, Sly PD, de Klerk NH, Landau LI, Kendall GE, Holt PG, Stanley FJ. Breast feeding and respiratory morbidity in infancy: a birth cohort study. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2003;88:224-228
  6. Cushing AH, Samet JM, Lambert WE, Skipper BJ, Hunt WC, Young SA, McLaren LC. Breastfeeding reduces risk of Respiratory illness in infants. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:863–870

References for obesity

  1. Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA, Berkey CS, Frazier AL, Rockett HR, Field AE, Colditz GA. Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. JAMA. 2001;285:2461–2467
  2. Grummer-Strawn LM, Mei Z. Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight? Analysis of longitudinal data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Pediatrics. 2004;113(2):e81-86
  3. Hediger ML, Overpeck MD, Kuczmarski RI, Ruan WJ. Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children. JAMA. 2001;285:2453 –2460
  4. Toschke AM, Vignerova J, Lhotska L, Osancova K, Koletzko B, von Kries R. Overweight and obesity in 6- to 14-year old Czech children in 1991: protective effect of breast-feeding. J Pediatr. 2002;141:764 –769
  5. Von Kries R, Koletzko B, Sauerwald T, von Mutius E. Does breast-feeding protect against childhood obesity? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;478:29-39
  6. Strbak V, Skultetyova M, Hromadova M, Randuskova A, Macho L. Late effects of breast-feeding and early weaning: seven-year prospective study in children. Endocr Regul. 1991;25(1-2):53-57

Content last updated: August 01, 2010.

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